Kamis, 19 Juni 2014


P02 (Carriage error)

1. Pastikan tidak ada benda asing yg nyangkut di roll printer.
2. Bersihkan dan cek 
encodernya, mungkin kena cipratan tinta.
P03 (Line feed error)
Timing Disk kotor / rusak.
1. Cek timing disk sensor di sebelah kiri printer
2. Cek dan bersihkan boardnya
P05 (ASF sensor error)
sensor pendeteksi kertas Canon MP258 Error.
Coba ganti salah satu spare part berikut ini :
• ASF / PE sensor unit.
• Motor
• Board Printer Canon MP258.

P06 (Internal temperature error)
panas yg berlebihan di dalam printer Canon MP258.

1. Bersihkan bagian dalam printer MP258.
2. ganti Board Printer MP258

P07 (Ink absorber full)
Ink Counter Full / Penuh, Printer Canon MP258 minta di reset pakai Software.
Reset Printer Canon MP258 dengan menggunakan software
P08 (Print head temperature rise error)
Head terlalu panas, melebihi ambang batas, biasanya Catridge warnanya
Coba ganti catrid warna Printer Canon MP258.

P09 (EEPROM error)
EEPROM board Canon MP258 mengalami Corrupt atau rusak.
ganti Board Printer Canon MP258.

P10 (Logic Board/ Carriage Unit/ Kedua catridge rusak)
Catridge dibiarkan kosong dan dipakai untuk mencetak terus. Akibatnya panas dan terjadi kerusakan di salah satu komponen Logic Board/ Carriage Unit/ Kedua catridge
Ganti salah satu komponen yang paling mudah dan murah. Urutannya :
Catridge PG810 atau CL811 (bisa keduanya)
Catridge Unit lengkap dengan kabel headnya. (rumah catridge)
Logic board (mainboard printer)
P15 (USB VBUS over current)
Printer kelebihan arus dari kabel USB Printer Canon MP258.
1. Coba Ganti Kabel USB Printer Canon MP258.
2. Jika masih rusak, ganti Board Printer Canon MP258.

P20 (Other hardware error)
kerusakan hardware lainnya

ganti Board Printer Canon MP258.

P22 (Scanner error)
scanner tidak berfungsi
1. Ganti scanner Printer Canon MP258.
2. Ganti Board Printer Canon MP258.
E03 line feed error, tidak bisa narik kertas, LF encoder signal error

Bongkar ulang dan cek satu per satu sepertinya mekanik penarik kertas tidak beres, atau benda asing masuk ke printer sehingga tidak bisa menarik kertas.
Bersihkan timing slit disk filmya dari belepotan tinta
Coba bersihkan sensor yang melintang dari kiri ke kanan yang bening kehitam-hitaman dengan memakai tisu
E04 : Catridge canon MP258 tidak terpasang dengan baik

Ambil catridge, trus pasang lagi
E05 : Catridge canon MP258 tidak terpasang dengan baik atau salah satu catrid ada yg rusak

1. Ambil catridge, trus pasang lagi
2. Ganti catridge jika ada yg rusak
E14 dan E15 : Catridge canon MP258 tidak terpasang dengan baik.

Ambil catridge, trus pasang lagi
E13 dan E16Ink has run out / catridge minta di reset.

Tekan tombol STOP / Reset selama 5 - 15 detik tunggu sampai led display berproses

Jumat, 16 Agustus 2013

General trends of ELT in Indonesia can be described by looking at background and status of English, English language education and its curriculum, problems of ELT and recent development of English language teaching in Indonesia.
1.    Background And Status Of English And Other Languages In Indonesia
As many people are aware that there can be more than one language and culture within one island of Indonesia because Indonesia consists of multi ethnic groups with hundred different local languages spread over different parts of Indonesia. Hence, generally each individual speaks two languages, a local language (Bahasa Daerah such as Javanese, Ambonese, etc) and national language (Bahasa Indonesia). Both Nababan (1982, cited in Nur, 2004) and Dardjowidjojo (2000) classify languages used in Indonesia into three categories. They are vernacular/local languages (Bahasa Daerah), national languages (Bahasa Indonesia) and foreign languages. The first category is usually used as family languages for social communication in their regions. Moreover, as Dardjowidjojo (2000) states, most Indonesian children at individual level in regional areas learn their vernaculars as their mother tongue before they learn ‘Bahasa Indonesia’ (the national language) at school. The national language is used in formal and business communication and is also used to communicate with other Indonesians of different language backgrounds. For international communication, people use a foreign language.
In the 1950s, English was offered as foreign language in high schools (junior and senior high). However, choosing English as the main foreign language taught in secondary school has long history. Prior to Indonesia’s Independence Day, it seemed normal that many people were more familiar with Dutch and it is even taught in many schools in Indonesia to some limited group of people as it was the language of colonialist (Dardjowidjojo 2000). During the period of the independence in 1945, education, including foreign language education, was not in government attention. In 1950, when Indonesia’s political situation was relatively more stable, the government then was also ready to choose what foreign languages (either Dutch or English) were to be taught in schools. Lowenberg (1991), Dardjowidjojo (2000) and Nur (2004) believe that the policy-maker had been aware of the potential of English and its utility in every international domain as well as in the economic development of Indonesia. In fact, English was either dominant language or second language of Indonesia’s immediate neighbors such as Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, and Australia. Thus, due to its utility as world language and its utility as lingua franca of immediate geographical region, English was eventually chosen as the first foreign language rather than Dutch (although it was the colonial language). In addition, Dardjowidjojo (2000) explains that the term English as the first foreign language is used and not as second language because most Indonesians are bilingual with Indonesia as the national language (second language) and local / vernacular language as the mother tongue. Also, both Dardjowidjojo (2000) and Nur (2004) asserts that this status of English as the first foreign language remains today in Indonesia. However, Lowenberg (1991) claims that due to the functions of English in the linguistic repertoires of many Indonesians, English is seen as an additional language in Indonesia.
2.    English Language Education In Indonesia
In Indonesia educational system, English instruction begins in secondary (high) schools. According to 1967 Decree of the Ministry of Education and Culture (now known as the Department of National Education), the role of English in high schools was “to speed up national development in addition to establishing relationship with other nations and to carrying out its national foreign policy” (Nur, 2004, p.179). Therefore, English is compulsory subject for these two levels. It is also one of the subjects that students have to take in their final examinations.
Every junior high school students study English for 136 contact hours each year in which each contact hour equal with 45 minutes (Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Nur, 2004). By the end of the third year, students would have studied English for 408 contact hours on average. Hence, by the students complete their senior high school education; they would have studied English for more than 800 contact hours. As stated in 1967 Decree, the primary objective of English instruction in secondary schools was to provide a well-developed reading skills to facilitate transfer of science and technology knowledge because around 75% to 90% of scientific and technical textbooks and reference materials are still available only in English (Nur, 2004; Lowenberg, 1991) Speaking skills on the other hand, was given low priority because it was considered to be a luxury and also it was assumed that such ability at high school level could endanger national identity (Nur, 2004).
Prior 1994, English was not compulsory at elementary level (primary school). Only after 1994 revised curriculum, Ministry of Education then has allowed elementary schools to include English as a subject for students of grade four, five, and six. However, it seems that only government primary schools in urban areas and private schools would have the staff to teach English. As a result, those primary or elementary schools in rural areas still do not offer English due to shortage of staff able to teach it. In addition, unlike the high school students, English at elementary level is for oral communication only. Thus, the order of emphasis is speaking, listening, reading and writing (Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Nur, 2004). English is taught for 60 to 90 minutes a week, depending on resources of individual school (Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Nur, 2004).
At the university level, students in non-language departments have to take English for two semesters and for two to three hours a week (Lowenberg, 1991, Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Nur 2004). Based on their explanations, since the goal of English at this level is to assist students to develop their reading ability relates to their fields of study, the kind of English taught is ESP (English for Specific Purposes). While for those majoring in English, the university curriculum is to develop both language skills and theoretical knowledge (Dardjowidjojo, 2000). He also adds that to obtain a bachelor degree, students should finish their study between 144 to 160 credit hours.

3.    Curriculum And Policy
Dardjowidjojo (2000) and Nur (2004) recognize that since independence, Indonesia has experienced several changes in curriculum with different teaching approaches or methods from grammar-translation method and audio-lingual method to communicative approach (which is regarded as the most popular teaching approach). By 1984, the revised curriculum for English in secondary schools had adopted the communicative approach with an emphasis on the development of speaking skills. However, the practice did not reflect the communicative learning (Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Musthafa, 2001; Nur, 2004). Therefore, although the four skills remained as the targets for learning, the order of priority was changed to reading as the most important, then listening, writing and speaking.
Ten years later, in 1994, the Ministry of Education produced new curriculum to revise 1984. It is still communicatively oriented, but the official term was the meaning-based curriculum (meaningful approach) (Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Musthafa, 2001; Nur, 2004). Nur (2004) explains that this 1994 curriculum for high schools have three types of English syllabuses. They are national content which is required to be implemented nationally and which the purpose is to develop a basic reading skill, enrichment content which provides more exercises in reading comprehension, vocabulary building, control of structures in English and so on, and local content which have materials to meet the needs of students in specific regions in Indonesia such as English for industry, tourism and business/commerce.
The curriculum is not only national, it is also compulsory. Therefore, when a textbook writer or a publisher wants to have his book used by the schools in the country, she or he has to include all the materials stated in the curriculum, including the themes, the grammar, the functions, and the vocabulary items to be learned (Dardjowidjojo, 2000).
Furthermore, the release of Regional Autonomy Laws in 1999 made Indonesia to start its decentralization reform. The laws give autonomy to local governments and schools to have their own policy to manage their educational service provision, including English language education. This decentralization reform at school level is believed to lead to better school performance, greater school autonomy, better match between the services delivered and the students’ needs, greater parental and community involvement and greater participants in decision making (Depdiknas, 2003, cited in Yuwono, 2005).
Due to this decentralization reform and a more regional curriculum, the school-based curriculum was produced in 2006 in which local cultures are dominant and more decentralized education ( 
4.    Problems Of ELT In Indonesia
Since English was first taught, there have been problems in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Indonesia and the learning of English has been considered less of success in this country. Some Indonesian scholars (such as Dardjowidjojo, 2000; Musthafa, 2001; Nur, 2004 and Yuwono, 2005) and some non-Indonesian scholars (such as Kirkpatrick, 2007 and Kam, 2004) have portrayed it in this way. Although the curriculum plays important role in maintaining standards in ELT, most of the major problems seem to lie outside the curriculum. Both Dardjowidjojo (2000) and Nur (2004) agree on five common problems such as big class sizes, teachers with low level of English proficiency, the low salary of government English teachers which encourage or even force many to moonlight, the lack of sufficient preparation to teach the new curriculum and the culture barriers for teachers to leave the role of master and to accept or to adopt the new role of facilitator. They also claims that the large class sizes and unqualified English teachers are two obvious factors that contribute to the ongoing problems in ELT in Indonesia. Musthafa (2001) also lists other reasons for the problems such as limited time allocated for teaching English; lack opportunity to actually practice speaking English in the classroom due to focus on grammar and syntax and the use of L1/ mother tongue; less authentic materials and lack opportunity to socialize English outside the classroom. According to Yuwono (2005), ELT in Indonesia seems to be always problematic before and after decentralization era. She also suggests that the continually-revised curriculum does not seem to consider factors such as suitable qualifications for teachers and numbers of students nor does it provide strategies and alternatives.
            Related to ability in English, Dardjowidjojo (2000) assumes that the number of hours a student spends in secondary school and the optional hours in elementary school should at least have resulted in a high ability in English by the time she/ he graduate from senior high school. The outcome, however, is far from the expectation. It seems that a high school graduate is unable to communicate intelligibly in English and those who are able is suspected of having taken private courses or come from a certain family background (Dardjowidjojo, 2000). Kam (2004, p.8) sees that this low ability in English is as a result of a “flip-flopping” in ELT methods or approaches in Indonesia (from grammar-translation method to communicative approach). Nevertheless, Dardjowidjojo (1996, cited in Kam, 2004) claims that the lack of students motivation, poor attitude of students in learning English and shortage of teachers with adequate English language competence are the contributors of the low ability in English.
            Moreover, the ELT situation in university level is similar. Kirkpatrick (2007) suggests that as the entry level of most students is very low, the ESP class focuses on grammar and translation. Thus, most of ESP programs fail to develop students’ proficiency in English. In agreement with Kirkpatrick (2007), Nur (2004) asserts that university graduates who have studied six years of English in both junior and senior high schools and another year in university generally cannot communicate adequately in English. She also gives an example from Nurweni and Read report in 1999 that Indonesian students on average first year only master about 1226 English words which is considered as far below the threshold for senior high school students which is 4000 to 5000 English words.
            In private elementary schools, on the other hand, the ELT practice is much different. As reported by Sadtono (1997, cited in Kam, 2004) that children in one school in Surabaya that taught English from grade one was able to write fairly good compositions when they were in grade five and six. He believes that this was due to the teacher who used integrated approach. Unfortunately, this success in private elementary school could be difficult to be continuously applied in other elementary schools either in public schools or elementary schools in rural areas as the introduction of ELT at this level is still confined to some selected elementary schools in urban areas
5.    Recent Development Of ELT In Indonesia
Despite the problems of ELT practice in Indonesia, English continues to be the most popular foreign language in Indonesia schools. Since 1994, ELT has been introduced from grade four of elementary level in public schools. With a reorientation objective in 1994 (which is regarded to be important in ELT in Indonesia in the last few years), the focus has been on listening and speaking skills in elementary schools and on speaking and reading skills in secondary schools.
Furthermore, the language policy for education in Indonesia has made English language learning compulsory. Although the policy has attributed teaching English from early grades in elementary schools, it has not been fully implemented largely because of lack of primary teachers both in numbers and skills level.
However, overall, there has been an attempt in the last ten years to strengthen and improve the ELT through curriculum revision and development as well as decentralization reform.

6.    Generalization Of ELT In Indonesia (Some Trends And Issues)
It can be seen through the previous discussion that the general situation of formal ELT in Indonesia is rather discouraging. Practitioners, language experts and policy makers agree that teaching of English in Indonesia has not been a success over the past few decades (Dardjowidjojo, 1996b cited in Nur, 2004). This condition is also stated in some scholars’ finding in their journal article of ELT in Indonesia such as Dardjowidjojo (2000), Musthafa (2001), Nur (2004), Kirkpatrick (2007) and Kam (2004).
However, the problems concerning ELT in Indonesia seem to be a complex matter. As Nur (2004) states that it is not easy to identify the real cause of ELT’s lack of success. It seems that the policy and practice of ELT in Indonesia is not likely to change much. As Nur (2004) suggests that although change is inevitable in todays fast changing world, no dramatic changes are expected in Indonesia. Thus, she argues that the practice of English instruction will continue as it has been always the case. There is less can be done to improve the teaching of English in Indonesian schools as there are other more pressing priorities such as political and economic problems.
Unlike Nur, Dardjowidjojo (2000) sees the failure in teaching English in Indonesia as common phenomena in EFL countries. Thus, there is no need to be pessimistic.
Furthermore, Kam (2004) summarizes the issue of ELT in Indonesia in terms of dilemma. He explains that on the one hand, Indonesia face shortage of English teachers and on the other, those currently teaching English would need to improve qualitatively. This is what he called by “quantitative vs qualitative dilemma” (Kam, 2004, p.28). He suggests that limited resources have to be distributed between recruiting and training more teachers of English and providing in-service training for those who have already teaching English in schools.
4. Impact of new trend in EIL on attitude toward and perception of English in

            Based on Kirkpatrick project and Zacharias study, it appears that the choice of local cultures and concerns may have reflected the need of Indonesians to talk about these, given the extraordinary social, political, and cultural changes that Indonesians were experiencing at the time. Also, this need can be seen from the release of recent school-based curriculum in 2006. This emphasis on Indonesian cultures also support Nur argument (2004, p.185) when she said “there is always sense of apprehension that the widespread use of English will severely impede the development of ‘Bahasa Indonesia’ and push aside local cultures”. McKay (2003) also sees that today in a country where English as an additional language, there is a growing importance of including the local cultures.
Moreover, from Zacharias study, it seems clear that native-speakerism still exists in ELT in Indonesia, and in her case, it existed in the teachers’ belief. However, in their teaching practice, it appears that most teachers have already started to move from native speaker paradigm (although it is not much) such as in the issue of culture in ELT, materials for reading that is preferred from local source materials and the use of mother tongue. Many respondents also imply unconsciously that native speaker teachers have weakness such as in teaching grammar; therefore, they prefer native speaker teachers to teach only speaking and pronunciation. Thus, I agree with Matsuda’s suggestion (2003) about teacher education of World Englishes. In this case, if those kinds of teachers (in Zacharias study) are given training to be introduced to the issue about EIL by taking a World Englishes course or an English sociolinguistics course that the scope is not limited to English speaking countries, they are more likely to be open minded and are aware of the realities of the spread of English as an international language. Also, it seems apparent that without this, it is difficult for teachers to have total paradigm shift.
            In addition, Dardjowidjojo (2000) states that in the past, people preferred British English to American English. However, political and economic domination seem to have changed this attitude. He also asserts that Indonesian government actually has no special policy on the variety to be taught. The only guideline used is that it must be consistent. Furthermore, with the current emphasis on fluency rather that accuracy, Indonesians have begun to accept non-native variety of English ( Dardjowidjojo, 2000). Thus, actually, the new trends of EIL have a potential place in Indonesia as long as there is a way to raise people awareness about the role of EIL in global society such as teacher education toward EIL and the use of media (Matsuda, 2003).

5. Conclusion
            In conclusion, the general picture of formal ELT in Indonesia is indeed discouraging and has been characterized by failure. However, with a rapid globalization of English, as Dardjowidjojo (2000) states, Indonesians have begun to accept non-native varieties of English. Also, more people, although not much, have already started to move from native speakerism such as by having the idea that local cultures are more appropriate to form basis for textbook content rather than target cultures.
            Although EIL policy and practice in Indonesia seems difficult to be applied in formal education due to factors like curriculum, government control, and more pressing priorities, EIL could be tried to be introduced and implemented through places such as private schools, English courses, or university where the curriculum does not depend on the government and also through the use of media such as internet in English courses or in extracurricular activities at schools.
            Therefore, although it seems difficult and takes a long time, there is a chance for Indonesians to change their attitude toward English in the light of EIL as long as there is a continuous exposure to ELT in Indonesia not only through formal education, a change in the government in issuing teaching visa not to English speaking countries only, and the use of media such as internet.

Reference List
Dardjowidjojo, S. (2000). English Teaching in Indonesia. EA Journal, 18(1), pp. 22-30.
Kam, H. W. (2004). English Language Teaching in East Asia Today: An overview. In H. W. Kam & R. Y. L. wong (Eds.), English Language Teaching in East Asia Today: Changing Policies and Practices (2 ed., pp. 1-32). Singapore: Eastern University Press.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). Teaching English Across Culture: What do English language teacher need to know to know how to teach English. EA Journal, 23(2), pp. 20-33.
Lowenberg, P. H. (1991). English as An Additional Language in Indonesia. World Englishes, 10(1), pp. 127-138.
Musthafa, B. (2001). Communicative Language Teaching in Indonesia. Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2(2), pp. 1-9.
Nur, C. (2004). English Language Teaching in Indonesia: Changing Policies and Practices. In H. w. Kam & R. Y. L. Wong (Eds.), English Language Teaching in East Asia Today: Changing Policies and Practices (2 ed., pp. 178-186). Singapore: Eastern University Press. (2008). Career Hunter.   Retrieved 17 September, 2008 (2008). Pusat Kurikulum Balitbang Depdiknas.   Retrieved 17 September, 2008
Yuwono, G. (2005). English Language Teaching in Decentralised Indonesia: Voices from The Less Priviledged Schools. Paper presented at the AARE 2005 International Education Research Conference.

Sabtu, 05 Mei 2012

Man of Many Kind

Man of ability
Man of 
absolute genius 
Man of absolute honesty
Man of absolutely fastidious tastes
Man of account 
Man of achievement 
Man of action 
Man of active and resilient mind
Man of active habits
Man of acute hearing
Man of adamantine honesty
Man of affairs
Man of affluence 
Man of all work 
Man of ardent temperament
Man of ardent political convictions
Man of artistic sensibility 
Man of 
Man of blood 
Man of breeding
Man of brick 
Man of brilliant genius 
Man of boundless energy
Man of business
Man of candour
Man of capacity
Man of 
Man of charming personality 
Man of clear understanding 
Man of clerical responsibilities 
Man of cold temperament
Man of colour 
Man of a commanding presence 
Man of commanding appearance 
Man of commanding genius 
Man of common birth 
Man of common sense
Man of compelling personality 
Man of compromise 
Man of conscience 
Man of considerable attainments
Man of considerable learning 
Man of considerable taste 
Man of considerable wealth 
Man of consummate prudence
Man of contention 
Man of conviction 
Man of courage 
Man of courtly nurture 
Man of critical temper 
Man of cultivation 
Man of culture 
Man of culture and experience 
Man of decision
Man of deeds
Man of destiny
Man of devotion
Man of different calibre
Man of dignified bearing 
Man of discriminating taste
Man of distinction 
Man of distinguished abilities 
Man of distinguished intelligence
Man of education 
Man of eminence
Man of eminently noble character 
Man of energetic action
Man of energy
Man of erudition
Man of evil repute 
Man of exact mind
Man of exalted genius
Man of very exceptional mind and sensibility 
Man of excessive sensibility 
Man of extraordinary qualities 
Man of extraordinary sensibility
Man of extremes 
Man of fancy
Man of family 
Man of fashion
Man of fertile and ingenious mind 
Man of few words 
Man of the field 
Man of fiery temperament 
Man of fine conversation 
Man of the first rank
Man of flesh and blood
Man of force
Man of fortune 
Man of fulfilled loves 
Man of the future 
Man of genius Man of god
Man of good heart 
Man of good repute
Man of good sense 
Man of goodly personage 
Man of great ability 
Man of great charm 
Man of great conversational powers 
Man of great courage 
Man of great distinction 
Man of great erudition 
Man of great esteem
Man of great gravity 
Man of great heart 
Man of great independence of mind 
Man of great integrity 
Man of great merit 
Man of great moral courage
Man of great quality 
Man of great wealth
Man of great zeal 
Man of guile 
Man of handsome property 
Man of hard work and few words
Man of high ability 
Man of high character 
Man of high distinction 
Man of high extraction 
Man of High principles 
Man of high rank 
Man of the highest eminence in political history
Man of his word 
Man of honour 
Man of honour and glory 
Man of the hour 
Man of humble birth 
Man of humble origin 
Man of ill judgement
Man of imagination 
Man of imaginative genius 
Man of imbalanced habits 
Man of imperturbable temperament 
Man of importance
Man of incorruptible integrity 
Man of independent means 
Man of independent mind
Man of inferior ability 
Man of inferior birth 
Man of influence 
Man of integrity 
Man of intellect 
Man of intellectual integrity 
Man of intelligence
Man of inward light 
Man of iron 
Man of iron determination
Man of iron will 
Man of judgement 
Man of justice 
Man of knowledge 
Man of labour 
Man of law
Man of learning
Man of learning and judgement
Man of legendary strength
Man of leisure 
Man of letters 
Man of literary genius
Man of literary habits 
Man of literary interests 
Man of literary power 
Man of literature 
Man of little imagination
Man of little information 
Man of many accomplishments
Man of many acquisitions
Man of many excellent qualities 
Man of many faults
Man of many interests
Man of many parts 
Man of many resources 
Man of many trades 
Man of many wiles
Man of many words 
Man of mark 
Man of marked excellence
Man of marvellous energy
Man of maturity 
Man of maturity and wisdom 
Man of mean birth 
Man of mean understanding 
Man of means 
Man of mediocrity 
Man of medium height 
Man of memories
Man of merit 
Man of mettle 
Man of middle size 
Man of middling height
Man of mighty name 
Man of mild disposition
Man of moderate birth
Man of moderate fortune 
Man of modest means 
Man of money 
Man of moods 
Man of morality 
Man of morals 
Man of musical sensibility
Man of nasty ideas 
Man of negative view point 
Man of negotiation 
Man of noble birth
Man of note 
Man of optimism 
Man of ordinary intelligence 
Man of outstanding ability 
Man of outstanding genius 
Man of paradoxes 
Man of parts 
Man of peace 
Man of the people
Man of personal popularity 
Man of piety 
Man of pleasure
Man of polite learning
Man of political power 
Man of position 
Man of power 
Man of powerful mind
Man of practical wisdom
Man of practically no ideas
Man of the press 
Man of principle
Man of private virtue 
Man of prodigious endurance 
Man of prominence 
Man of property 
Man of prudence 
Man of public virtue 
Man of pure mind
Man of purpose
Man of quality 
Man of rank
Man of rare attainments 
Man of real sensibility 
Man of refined manners 
Man of refined taste
Man of religion 
Man of remarkable energy 
Man of remarkable gifts 
Man of remarkable quality 
Man of renown 
Man of respectable appearance
Man of respectable talents 
Man of rigid morals 
Man of ripe experience 
Man of romantic tradition 
Man of saintly life 
Man of science 
Man of self-respect 
Man of sense 
Man of sensibility
Man of sensitive culture
Man of sensitive nature 
Man of simplicity of soul 
Man of singular merit 
Man of singularly delicate constitution
Man of singularly sincere character
Man of skilful hand 
Man of small stature
Man of social standing 
Man of social worth
Man of some abilities 
Man of some account 
Man of some background 
Man of some scientific reputation 
Man of some social standing
Man of some 
Man of sorrows 
Man of sound judgement 
Man of the soundest judgement 
Man of 
sovereign parts 
Man of spirit 
Man of 
splendid abilities 
Man of spotless life 
Man of standing 
Man of stature 
Man of stern and stubborn principles 
Man of straw 
Man of strict principles 
Man of strife
Man of strong action 
Man of strong build 
Man of strong character 
Man of strong common sense
Man of strong intellect 
Man of strong mind 
Man of strong 
Man of strong physique 
Man of strong sense 
Man of strong views 
Man of strong will and decided character 
Man of stubbornness 
Man of substance 
Man of subtle reasoning 
Man of superior abilities 
Man of superior education 
Man of swarthy appearance 
Man of 
sweet manners 
Man of talent 
Man of taste 
Man of 
the theatre 
Man of thought 
Man of true genius 
Man of two-fold character 
Man of unblemished character 
Man of uncertain temper 
Man of unclear lips 
Man of understanding 
Man of unlimited resource 
Man of valour 
Man of varied attainments 
Man of various information 
Man of vast information 
Man of vast minds 
Man of very high reputation Man of violent passions 
Man of virtue 
Man of vision 
Man of war 
Man of weak nerves 
Man of wealth 
Man of wealth and importance 
Man of wide culture 
Man of wide interests 
Man of wide reading 
Man of wit 
Man of words 
Man of worth
Man of zeal 

Kamis, 16 Februari 2012

Bagaimana Lubang Hitam Supermasif Menjadi Ada, Segera Setelah Big Bang

"Simulasi ini benar-benar raksasa. Ini adalah yang terbesar dalam hal tingkat fisika dan volume yang sebenarnya."
Para peneliti dari Carnegie Mellon University telah menemukan apa yang menyebabkan lubang hitam supermasif awal bertumbuh sedemikian cepat – pola makan stabil konsumsi makanan dingin cepat saji.
Simulasi komputer, dengan menggunakan superkomputer di National Institute for Computational Sciences dan Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, serta menggunakan teknologi GigaPan CMU, menunjukkan bahwa aliran tipis gas dingin yang tidak terkendali ke arah pusat lubang hitam pertama, menyebabkan mereka bertumbuh lebih cepat daripada apa pun di alam semesta. Temuan ini dipublikasikan dalam Astrophysical Journal Letters.
Pada masa-masa awal alam semesta, sekitar 700-800 juta tahun setelah Big Bang, sebagian besar objek adalah kecil. Bintang-bintang dan galaksi-galaksi pertama baru saja mulai terbentuk dan bertumbuh pada bagian yang terisolasi di alam semesta. Menurut teori astrofisika, lubang hitam yang ditemukan selama era ini juga seharusnya berbentuk kecil sesuai proporsinya dengan galaksi di mana mereka berada. Namun, pengamatan terakhir dari Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telah menunjukkan bahwa itu tidak terjadi – lubang hitam supermasif besar sudah ada sekitar 700 juta tahun setelah Big Bang.
“Sloan Digital Sky Survey menemukan lubang-lubang hitam supermasif pada kurang dari 1 miliar tahun. Ukuran mereka sama dengan lubang hitam yang paling besar saat ini, yang berusia 13,6 miliar tahun,” kata Tiziana Di Matteo, profesor fisika di Carnegie Mellon. “Ini adalah teka-teki. Mengapa beberapa lubang hitam terbentuk begitu awal ketika dibutuhkan waktu seluruh usia alam semesta bagi lubang hitam lainnya untuk mencapai massa yang sama?”
Lubang hitam supermasif merupakan lubang hitam terbesar, dengan miliaran kali massa lebih besar dari matahari. Biasanya lubang hitam hanya memiliki massa sampai 30 kali lebih besar dari matahari. Astrofisikawan telah menentukan bahwa lubang hitam supermasif dapat terbentuk ketika dua galaksi bertabrakan dan dua lubang hitam mereka bergabung menjadi satu. Tabrakan-tabrakan galaksi ini terjadi di alam semesta pada tahun-tahun kemudian, namun tidak terjadi pada masa-masa awal. Dalam beberapa jutaan tahun pertama setelah Big Bang, galaksi terlalu sedikit dan terlalu terpisah jauh untuk bisa bergabung.
“Jika Anda menulis rumus pada bagaimana galaksi dan lubang hitam terbentuk, tampaknya tidak mungkin dapat membentuk massa yang besar pada waktu sedemikian awal,” kata Rupert Croft, seorang profesor fisika di Carnegie Mellon. “Tapi kita melihat ke luar angkasa dan mereka memang ada.”
Untuk mengetahui persis bagaimana lubang hitam supermasif bisa menjadi ada, Di Matteo, Croft dan Nishikanta Khandai menciptakan simulasi kosmologis terbesar hingga saat ini. Disebut MassiveBlack, simulasi ini difokuskan pada penciptaan kembali miliar tahun pertama setelah Big Bang.
“Simulasi ini benar-benar raksasa. Ini adalah yang terbesar dalam hal tingkat fisika dan volume yang sebenarnya. Kami melakukan ini karena tertarik untuk melihat hal-hal yang langka di alam semesta, seperti lubang hitam pertama. Karena mereka begitu langka, Anda perlu mencari lebih dari volume ruang yang besar,” kata Di Matteo.
Distribusi massal skala besar kosmologis dalam volume simulasi MassiveBlack. Kepadatan gas terproyeksi pada keseluruhan volume ('membuka' ke dalam 2D) ditampilkan dalam gambar skala besar (latar belakang). Kedua gambar di atas menunjukkan dua zoom-in peningkatan faktor 10, wilayah tempat lubang hitam yang paling besar - quasar pertama - terbentuk. Lubang hitam di tengah gambar dan sedang diberi makan oleh aliran gas dingin. (Kredit: Yu Feng)
Mereka mulai dengan menjalankan simulasi di bawah kondisi yang ditetapkan dalam standar model kosmologi – teori yang diterima serta hukum-hukum fisika modern yang mengatur pembentukan dan pertumbuhan alam semesta.
“Kami tidak memasukkan apa pun yang bersifat gila. Tak ada fisika yang ajaib, tidak ada hal-hal tambahan. Ini adalah fisika yang sama yang membentuk galaksi dalam simulasi pada alam semesta kemudian,” kata Croft. “Namun secara ajaib, quasar-quasar awal ini, seperti yang sudah diobervasi, memang muncul. Kami tidak tahu mereka akan menampakkan diri. Sungguh menakjubkan saat mengukur massa mereka dan menjadi ‘Wow! Terdapat ukuran yang tepat dan menunjukkan dengan tepat pada titik yang tepat pada waktunya.’ Ini adalah kisah sukses bagi teori kosmologi modern.”
Data simulasi mereka dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah teknologi baru yang dikembangkan oleh para ilmuwan komputer Carnegie Mellon, yang disebut Time Machine GigaPan. Teknologi ini memungkinkan para peneliti melihat simulasi mereka seolah-olah itu adalah video dengan resolusi yang sangat tinggi. Hal ini memungkinkan mereka untuk dengan mudah menggeser keseluruhan simulasi alam semesta sebagaimana alam semesta terbentuk dan bergerak maju mundur melalui waktu yang diperlukan. Mereka kemudian dapat memperbesar peristiwa yang tampaknya menarik, melihatnya secara lebih rinci daripada yang bisa dilihat dengan menggunakan teleskop.
Ketika mereka meluncur ke penciptaan lubang hitam supermasif pertama, mereka melihat sesuatu yang tidak terduga. Biasanya, saat gas dingin mengalir menuju lubang hitam, mereka bertabrakan dengan gas lainnya di galaksi sekitarnya. Hal ini menyebabkan gas dingin memanas dan kemudian mendingin kembali sebelum memasuki lubang hitam. Proses ini, yang disebut sebagai pemanasan kejutan, akan menghentikan pertumbuhan lubang hitam yang cukup cepat di alam semesta awal untuk mencapai massa yang bisa kita lihat. Sebaliknya, Di Matteo dan Croft melihat pada simulasi aliran tipis gas padat yang dingin mengalir di sepanjang filamen yang memberikan struktur alam semesta dan langsung ke pusat lubang hitam dengan kecepatan yang sangat tinggi, membuat makanan dingin cepat saji untuk lubang hitam. Konsumsi yang tidak terkendali ini menyebabkan lubang hitam secara eksponensial bertumbuh dengan lebih cepat dibandingkan pertumbuhan galaksi di mana mereka berada.
Dan karena galaksi terbentuk ketika sebuah lubang hitam terbentuk, hasilnya juga bisa menjelaskan bagaimana galaksi pertama kali terbentuk, memberikan petunjuk yang lebih untuk bagaimana alam semesta menjadi ada. Di Matteo dan Croft berharap untuk sedikit mendorong batas-batas simulasi mereka, bahkan menciptakan simulasi yang lebih besar yang mencakup lebih banyak ruang dan waktu.
Kredit: Carnegie Mellon University
Jurnal: Yu Feng, Rupert A. C. Croft, Tiziana Di Matteo, Nishikanta Khandai, Randy Sargent, Illah Nourbakhsh, Paul Dille, Chris Bartley, Volker Springel, Anirban Jana, Jeffrey Gardner. Terapixel Imaging of Cosmological Simulations. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 2011; 197 (2): 18 DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/197/2/18